Project 6: Early American Painting

Students Learn about early American artist John Singleton Copley, Paul Revere. Gilbert Stuart, George Washington Portrait. Washington Crossing the Deleware River.  These paintings and artist represent early American history. The significance is very important in understanding the development of art and the art movement of european society compared to American society.   Students also learn about the Boston Tea Party and Washington crossing the Deleware river. Students are asked to create an EPIC picture that represents the history and art movements discussed in class. Students are asked to use color, value, and depth properly when creating their artwork.  POW Factor!!    The POW Factor is a technique I created that helps students master shading and value. If done correctly their art work will have form. This means their picture will become two dimensional.

Materials: Pencil first, sharpies & colored pencils.

Students will be graded on:
15 points –  Overall understanding of concepts introduced by teacher. Color & Value, Contrast
5 points – Creativity ( Is student using his or her imagination to create their final work)
5 points – Craftsmanship ( Is student keeping a clean orderly paper, Name on paper correctly, Not wrinkled and folded)
5 points- Behavior during class. ( Is the student miss behaving, Talking too much, not following classroom / school policy)
Total 30 points.

Colorado Model Content Standards {VISUAL ARTS}*1. Students recognize and use the visual arts as a form of communication. 2. Students know and apply elements of art*, principles of design*, and sensory* and expressive* features of visual arts. 3. Students know and apply visual arts materials*, tools*, techniques*, and processes*. 4. Students relate the visual arts to various historical* and cultural* traditions. 5. Students analyze and evaluate the characteristics, merits, and meaning of works of art.

Standard 1, Grade K-4 {In grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes}: identifying visual images*, themes, and ideas for works of art; selecting and using visual images, themes, and ideas to communicate meaning; and comparing the use of visual images and ideas.
Standard 2, In grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes: Identifying elements of art and principles of design in works of art; and applying elements of art and principles of design to create works of art.
Standard 3, In grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes: Identifying and describing different materials, tools, techniques, and processes; and using materials, tools, techniques, and processes to make works of art.
Standard 4, In grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes: Identifying works of art as belonging to various cultures, times, and places; and creating art based on historical and cultural ideas of diverse people.

 

Boston Tea Party

**The Boston Tea Party**
By Erin
“No Taxation Without 
Representation”
*Who was in the Boston Tea Party?*
Samuel Adams was born in Boston on September 27, 1722.  In 1773, he led the town of Boston to raid the 3 ships from British full of tea.  He helped and led the Tea Act with dumping the 342 crates of tea into the Boston Harbor.

*What was the Boston Tea Party?*
In 1767, the British parliament put taxes on their imports to America.  Some colonists thought that this was illegal and they wouldn’t follow the rules, and didn’t pay the tax.  The British Parliament found this out and stopped putting taxes on everything except their tea.  Then in 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act, which would help make a British trading company (East India Company) to get out of debt.  This made the tea able to be sold for cheaper in America, so the British trading company could bring them to America and make more money.  The trading company gained lots of money, and the colonists were afraid that this would put some of the local tea sellers out of work, since the imported teas were at such a low price.  They also thought that if they bought the tea from the British that they would put even more taxes on goods]

In December 1773, British ships carried 500,000 pounds of tea from the East India Company to Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Charles Town.  The citizens didn’t want this tea to come, thinking that it would kill the American profits and get everyone out of business.  The Sons of Liberty made plans to stop the tea.  In Boston, the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Native Americans, or Mohawks, and ran to the ships filled with tea.  They tipped the 342 crates of tea into the Boston Harbor.   Because of this, Parliament passed the Coercive Acts, which were so harsh that they were renamed the Intolerable Acts.

*When was the Boston Tea Party?*
The Boston Tea Party took place on December 16, 1773.

*Where did the Boston Tea Party take place?*
The Boston Tea Party happened in 3 British ships in the Boston Harbor.

*Why did the Boston Tea Party take place?*
The Boston Tea Party took place because the colonists did not want to have to pay taxes on the British tea.  They were afraid that Britian would take over America, and they wanted to rule their own country.  They thought that the tea would put all of the colonists out of buisness.

*How…cause and effect*
The effect of the Boston Tea Party was that the British passed the Intolerable acts, which were very harsh and cruel to the people of Boston. 

 

Paul Revere was a man of many talents who stood up for what he believed in and worked hard to establish this country. He was a heroic man who took risks.

Paul Revere was born in Boston in 1734. His father, a French Higuenot, raised him. His father’s name was Apollos Rivoire. Two of Paul’s talents came from his father. Paul’s father taught Revere how to be a silversmith and a goldsmith. Paul Revere’s father died when Paul was nineteen years of age. In the year 1756, Paul volunteered to fight the French at Lake George, New York. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the colonial artillery.

In August 1757, Paul Revere married Sarah Orne. Together they had eight children. Shortly after Sarah’s death in 1773, he married Rachel Walker and had another eight children.

 

Image courtesy of Art Today.
“The Old North Church”
 

On April 18, 1775, Paul Revere was sent by Dr. Joseph Warren to go to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams. Paul had to tell them that the Red Coats were coming to get them. He warned many people in Lexington that the British were coming through town. He saw that there were two lanterns in the bell tower of the Old North Church, meaning that the British Lobsterbacks were coming by sea. He and a friend had set up a plan that if the British were coming, that there would be a lantern in the bell tower. “One if by land and two if by sea,” Paul said. Two other men also joined Revere in his journey to alarm the countryside. Later on, they were all arrested by the British patrol. Paul Revere was held for a long time before getting released. So then he returned to Lexington on foot and saw part of the battle of Lexington and Concord.The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere, a poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, helps everyone remember Paul Revere. Grant Wood, famous American painter, painted Revere’s famous late night ride.

 

AMERICANREVOLUTION.ORG


click on the photo above to go to a full screen view

 

With the possible exceptions of DaVincis’ Mona Lisa and Last Supper, this is perhaps the most universally recognized image in the entire history of art.

It is also an image that historians love to hate.

Painted in Dusseldorf, Germany around 1851, the artist had lived in America as a boy, and after going back to Germany, had returned to America many times (years later he would emigrate here). While here, he visited the Smithsonian and examined Washingtons uniform and sword, and carefully studied paintings and sculpture of the Great General which were done in Washingtons lifetime. Yet, despite this intensive research into historical accuracies, Leutze then let his artistic license run wild. Perhaps that is why this painting is usually classified in the “Romantic” school of art.

The actual crossing was done in the dead of night, during a driving snowstorm, and was completed by three a. m. Leutze indulged in symbolism showing Washington leading his men out of a stormy darkness into a new dawn of freedom. Indeed, although you can’t make it out in our electronic image, in the original, in the sky directly above the foremost oarsman, Leutze painted in the morning star, invoking the legend of the wise ones following the star at Christmas.

Two future Presidents of the United States crossed the river that fateful night, James Madison and James Monroe. Also along with the army were a future Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, John Marshall, and famous rivals Aarron Burr and Alexander Hamilton.

Besides Washington, only two of the figures in the boat have been identified. Look closely at the fellow holding the flag, and you’ll see James Monroe. He was quartered in the house where Washington made the decision to cross, and served as a scout and trusted adviser to the General, but there’s nothing in the historical records to indicate he crossed in the same boat. Note the so-called “Betsy Ross” flag, with the stars in a circle. This design first came into existence some six months after the crossing.

The other recognizable figure, pulling on an oar at Washingtons knee, is Prince Whipple, a black patriot who has become a minor legend of the Revolution. As an early biographer said of him: “Prince Whipple was born in Amabou, Africa, of comparatively wealthy parents. When about ten years of age, he was sent by them, in company with a cousin, to America to be educated. An elder brother had returned four years before, and his parents were anxious that their child should receive the same benefits. The captain who brought the two boys over proved a treacherous villain, and carried them to Baltimore, where he exposed them for sale, and they were both purchased by Portsmouth men, Prince falling to Gen. Whipple. He was emancipated during the [Revolutionary] war, was much esteemed, and was once entrusted by the General with a large sum of money to carry from Salem to Portsmouth. He was attacked on the road, near Newburyport, by two ruffians; one was struck with a loaded whip, the other he shot…Prince was beloved by all who knew him. He was the “Caleb Quotom” of Portsmouth. where he died at the age of thirty-two leaving a widow and children.”

But, while many black soldiers served in Glovers Marblehead Regiment, the unit that ferried the army across the river, Prince Whipple wasn’t one of them. In fact, in December of 1776 he was in Baltimore.

Of course, few of the soldiers who crossed the river that horrible night to fight what was to be one of the few battles that can be said to have changed the course of the history of the entire world were as fortunate as Monroe or Madison. Major James Wilkinson, who was on his way to join Washington, found his route easy to follow: “There was a little snow on the ground, which was tinged here and there with blood from the feet of the men who wore broken shoes.” Primary documents differ about Patriot casualties, but even the most pessimistic reflect that the only American dead after the battle were two soldiers who froze to death.

 


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