{Grade8} Architecture Beyond the Industrial Revolution  (Pen&Ink)

In eighth grade, students study architecture. This unit provides a great deal of information about well-known international architects and architecture that heavily influenced the United States. The three lessons provide small exercises and one large project to help the students understand that a building isn’t just a building.

Frank Lloyd Wright:    Falling Water
Demonstration of metal structure: Eiffel Tower

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Industrial Revolution Background Information

In the last part of the 18th century, a new revolution gripped the world that we were not ready for. This revolution was not a political one, but it would lead to many implications later in its existence. Neither was this a social or cultural revolution. This revolution was an economic one.

The Industrial Revolution, as it know called by historians, changed how the world produced its goods. It also changed our societies from a mainly agricultural society to one in which industry and manufacturing was in control.

The Industrial Revolution first got its start in Great Britian, during the 18th century, which at the time was the most powerful empire on the planet. It was inevitable that the country with the most wealth would lead in this revolution. After its adoption in England, other countries such as Germany, the United States and France joined in this revolution. During this time, there were also many, new technological advancements, socioeconomic and cultural problems that arised.

On the technology front, the biggest advancements were in steam power. New fuels such as coal and petroleum were incorporated into new steam engines. This revolutionized many industries including textiles and manufacturing. In addition, a new communication medium was invented called the telegraph. This made communicating across the ocean much faster.

However, along with this great leap in technology, there was an overall downfall in the socioeconomic and cultural situation of the people. Growth of cities was, one of the major consequences of the Industrial Revolution. Many people were driven to the cities to look for work, in turn the ended living in the cities that could not support them. With the new industrial age, a new quantitative and materialistic view of the world took place. This caused the need for people to consume as much as they could. This still happens today.

In addition, during this time much international strife was occurring at this time. The American Revolution was occurring in the beginning part of the Industrial Revolution. The French Revolution was in the process at the turn of the 19th century. This was a great time, but resulted in newly found democratic rights that spread through Europe and North America.

The Industrial Revolution was not a good revolution for the planet. From the time of its start, the factories and industry has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by two- folds. Also in our drive for consumerism, our planets natural resources are being depleted at an alarming rate. Pollution by nuclear waste, pesticides and other chemicals are also the result of the Industrial Revolution.

(information adapted from: The Industrial Revolution: http://www.msu.edu/user/brownlow/indrev.htm)

 

 

TYPES OF PENS for Pen and Ink Drawing

There are variety of different types of pens for pen and ink drawing.  Traditional ink pens consist of a shaft with an interchangeable nib.  These nibs serve as a temporary reservoir for the ink.  These pens are sometimes refered to as dip pens because the user will dip them into an ink well to retrieve the ink.  Different nibs make different widths of line.  When using dip pens, it is advisable to pull the pen to make marks as pushing the pen could result in splatters. Be sure to clean your nib after each session as dried India ink is hard to remove.

 

Another type of pen for pen and ink drawing is called a technical pen. Technical pens, unlike dip pens allow for movement in various directions without fear of splattering.  Some technical pens have a reservoir built into the pen that can be refilled with ink, while other technical pens are disposable.  Refillable pens are more expensive while disposable pens are logically less expensive.

Some pens used for pen and ink drawing techniques feature a brush tip.  A variety of marks can be made these pens that cannot be made with pens that have a defined nib or tip.

SURFACES for Pen and Ink Drawing

Pen and ink drawings are mostly created on different types of paper. The tooth, or texture, of the paper can effect the marks that are made by the pen. Most artists prefer to work on smoother surfaces to create detailed ink drawings. Bristol paper is a smooth surfaced paper that is heavier than regular drawing paper. Bristol paper tends to be a popular choice for pen and ink drawings because of it’s characteristics. Another popular choice for ink drawings is cold press illustration board. Although the tooth of cold press illustration board is generally rougher than Bristol paper, the thickness of the board adds more stabilty.  Some artists combine pen and ink drawing with other media, such as watercolor.  In these cases, the second medium may influence the surface chosen.

 

Pen and Ink TECHNIQUES

As mentioned before, there is an endless amount of pen and ink techniques. There are however, a few that are used more frequently and are considered to be the standard for drawing with pen and ink.  The following video demonstrates a few of these techniques.  The techniques are explained further down this page.

Hatching

Hatching is a technique used to add value in a linear fashion. The lines used in hatching mostly go in the same direction for a defined area. When hatching is used, the lines do not cross over each other. (Although cross hatching can be used in combination with hatching)  Hatching lines can be parallel or they can be used as cross contour lines to help define the form of the object. The closer the lines are to each other, the darker the value.  The more space between the lines, the lighter the value.

 

Cross Hatching

Cross hatching is just like hatching except that the lines cross over each other. The more that the lines cross, the darker the value.  Cross hatching can be used with rigid straight lines or as cross contour lines to define the form of the object.

Random Lines

Lines going in various directions can also be used to create pen and ink drawings.  By changing the frequency of the crossing of the lines, you can control the range of value produced. Using this method can also create a variety of different textures.

Stippling

Stippling is adding countless dots to create the value of the drawing. The higher the concentration of dots, the darker the value. The more space between the dots, the lighter the value. Stippling may be time consuming, but it allows the artist to have complete control the application of value, which can produce highly realistic results.

Ink Wash

Ink wash is the application of ink with a brush. Ink wash is much like painting with watercolor paint. The more water, the less intense the application of ink. Therefore, value is controled by the amount of water added to the ink prior to it’s application to the surface.

SPECIAL NOTE
Although many may disagree with me, it is may opinion that you should never mix methods. Pick a technique and stick with it. It will make your artwork unified.

This entry was posted on Tuesday, January 3rd, 2012 at 6:28 pm and is filed under Illustrator Alley, Weekly News. You can leave a comment and follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed.

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